Doctors-gynecologists divide the signs of pregnancy into hypothetical, probable and reliable. Changes in taste and olfactory sensations, appetite, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, hyperpigmentation of the skin of the face and nipples, as well as frequent urination are considered to be suspected.
Possible symptoms include not the onset of regular menstruation, an increase, and tenderness of the mammary glands, as well as some symptoms found during a gynecological examination. Probable signs do not allow to exclude ectopic pregnancy. Significant signs include the detection of the ovum during an ultrasound examination, fetal heartbeat (detected by Doppler imaging from 7-9 weeks of gestation), fetal movement (felt by the mother from 16 weeks).
Laboratory studies include urinalysis for chorionic gonadotropin (gives an answer already 1-2 weeks after implantation of the egg or in the first days of menstruation), determining the level of the chorionic gonadotropin I-subunit in the serum (allows you to give an exact answer a few days after implantation until the delay of menstruation).
Estimated Date of Delivery
The average duration of the pregnancy, counting from the 1st day of the last menstruation, is 280 days or 40 weeks. The Nigel formula determines the estimated date of birth: from the 1st day of the previous menstruation, three months are counted back and seven days are added.
You can choose a medical institution to monitor the course of pregnancy depending on your preferences and physical capabilities.
Free of charge, you can be seen in the women’s clinic at the place of registration or the location of actual residence. Free – does not always mean bad. You can get an attentive, highly qualified doctor who will observe you all nine months, direct you to all necessary examinations and expert advice.
Before delivery, you are given an exchange card, where all the results of the surveys will be entered. With this exchange card, you will go to the maternity hospital. Besides, you can contact one of the paid medical centers. Ideal if one doctor will conduct prenatal care and delivery.
Examination at the first call includes detailed questioning, gynecological exam, ultrasound examination, complete blood count , determination of blood group, Rh factor and antibodies to it, general analysis and urine culture, samples for syphilis, rubella, hepatitis B, HIV, cytological examination smear from the cervix, seeding the cervical discharge from the canal on gonococci (in high-risk groups also on chlamydia).
If a pregnant woman has any diseases, the doctor may order additional examinations.
In uncomplicated pregnancies, examinations are carried out once a month, from the 28th to the 36th week once every two weeks, and after the 36th week every week. They regularly measure weight gain, monitor blood pressure and the presence of edema, determine the height of standing of the uterus, listen to the heartbeat of the fetus.
A pregnant woman should regularly take a urine test to rule out glycosuria (detection of sugar in the urine) and proteinuria (detection of protein in the urine).
A hematologist should be visited if the mother and father of the child do not match in the Rh factor of blood. During pregnancy, the incompatibility of the Rh-negative blood of the mother and the Rh-positive blood of the fetus (the child can inherit the Rh factor from the father) can lead to Rh-conflict. This situation is not comfortable, although it can be solved: the doctors will make additional efforts to ensure that pregnancy and childbirth go without complications.
Medical genetic counseling is necessary in the following cases:
- Age of mother over 35 years old and father over 50 years old;
- The family already had chromosomal and genetic abnormalities; there are hereditary diseases;
- Previous childbirth with developmental deformities or mental retardation;
- Spouses have a close relationship (for example, second cousins);
- Addiction or exposure to harmful factors.
Nutrition during pregnancy
Food should include all basic foods, enough liquid, fiber, and calcium. Spicy and fatty foods should be avoided. In the regular initial diet, the caloric intake should be at least 2400 kcal/day. The menu should include 60-80 grams of protein, a large amount of fiber, as well as milk and dairy products. Fats and easily digestible carbohydrates should be limited. Body weight by the end of pregnancy increases by an average of 10-12 kg. Malnutrition increases the risk of fetal growth, and excessive weight gain during pregnancy increases the risk of developing a large fetus and the risk of birth injury. In some cases, doctors prescribe an additional intake of folic acid and iron supplements.
Exposure to harmful factors
Every woman and the people around her need to understand what effects some toxic substances can have on the unborn child. Smoking a woman during pregnancy can lead to a delay in intrauterine development of the fetus, congenital malformations and respiratory disorders in the newborn. Regular alcohol consumption leads to the development of fetal alcohol syndrome, and there of the direct relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and the severity of the disease. If a pregnant woman has occupational hazards, she has the right to expect a more extended maternity leave. It is also essential of the remember that pregnant women should not lift weights, work in the heat and conditions of high humidity.
The fact is that the laying of the principal organs of the fetus occurs in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, and if you do not limit yourself from the above factors, you can cause irreparable harm to your child.
It should be remembered that many drugs can hurt the fetus. Therefore, before taking any medication, you should carefully read the instructions. Try not to make any medications without a prescription.
The primary violations of the well-being of pregnant women, as a rule, are caused by cardiovascular and hormonal changes, an increase in the uterus and a breach of posture:
- – A headache, backache (parade tamale, aspirin is contraindicated as the drug of choice);
- – Nausea and vomiting (fractional food in small portions is recommended);
- – Constipation (a diet with a high content of fiber is recommended);
- – Varicose veins of the legs (you should wear special elastic stockings and often keep your legs in a sublime position).
Harbingers of preterm labor
All pregnant women should remember the signs of premature labor, and in case of detection of them, immediately seek medical help.
- Uncontrolled movements of the fetus, lasting more than 30 seconds. And occurring more often four times in 1 hour;
- Attacks of colic pain in the lower abdomen, lasting more than 4 seconds. And happening more often four times in 1 hour;
- periodic pulling pain in the lower abdomen;
- a change like the discharge or bleeding from the genital tract;
- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
Psychological and physical preparation for childbirth
Proper attitudes towards birth and self-reliance should be cultivated in a woman throughout pregnancy. Courses and training for expectant mothers, as well as reading additional literature will help you a lot in this. The classes will teach you how to breathe correctly, show a unique set of exercises aimed at preparing muscles and ligaments for childbirth and strengthening your back.
Slight exercise is necessary for all women with uncomplicated pregnancy. For this fit walking, swimming or a particular course of aerobics.